There are many different routes of administration for vaccines, including:
- Intramuscular (IM): This is the most common route of administration for vaccines. The vaccine is injected into the muscle, usually in the arm.
- Intradermal (ID): This route of administration is used for some vaccines, such as the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The vaccine is injected into the skin.
- Subcutaneous (SC): This route of administration is used for some vaccines, such as the hepatitis B vaccine. The vaccine is injected just under the skin.
- Intranasal (IN): This route of administration is used for some vaccines, such as the live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV). The vaccine is sprayed into the nose.
- Oral (PO): This route of administration is used for some vaccines, such as the rotavirus vaccine. The vaccine is given as a liquid that is swallowed.
Here is a table of all vaccines and their routes of administration and doses:
|Vaccine||Route of administration||Doses|
|DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis)||Intramuscular (IM)||5 doses: at 2, 4, 6, 15-18 months, and 4-6 years of age|
|Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b)||Intramuscular (IM)||3 doses: at 2, 4, and 6 months of age|
|Hepatitis B||Intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (subQ)||3 doses: at birth, 1-2 months, and 6-18 months of age|
|MMR (measles, mumps, rubella)||Subcutaneous (subQ)||2 doses: at 12-15 months of age and 4-6 years of age|
|Polio (inactivated)||Oral (PO) or intramuscular (IM)||4 doses: at 2, 4, 6-18 months, and 4-6 years of age|
|Rotavirus||Oral (PO)||3 doses: at 2, 4, and 6 months of age|
|Varicella (chickenpox)||Subcutaneous (subQ)||2 doses: at 12-15 months of age and 4-6 years of age|
|Influenza (flu)||Intramuscular (IM), intranasal (IN), or intradermal (ID)||Annually|
|Pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13)||Intramuscular (IM)||4 doses: at 2, 4, 6-12 months, and 15-18 months of age|
|Shingles (zoster)||Subcutaneous (subQ)||2 doses: at 60 years of age and older|
|Meningococcal (ACWY)||Intramuscular (IM)||1 dose: at 11-12 years of age and 16-18 years of age|
|Human papillomavirus (HPV)||Intramuscular (IM)||3 doses: at 11-12 years of age or 9-14 years of age|
|Japanese encephalitis||Intramuscular (IM)||3 doses: at 0, 7, and 30 days|
|Rabies||Intramuscular (IM) or intradermal (ID)||5 doses: on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28|
Please note that this table is not exhaustive, and there may be other vaccines in use that are not listed here. It is always best to talk to your doctor about which vaccines are right for you.
Doses of Vaccines Guide
The doses of vaccines may vary depending on the age of the person being vaccinated, their medical history, and the specific vaccine being given. It is important to follow the recommended doses of vaccines as directed by your doctor.
Here is an overview of single-dose versus multi-dose vials and the Joint Commission and UCA vaccines guide on handling them:
- A single-dose vial is a vial that contains one dose of medication. The entire vial must be used at once, and any unused medication must be discarded.
- Single-dose vials are often used for vaccines and other medications that are sensitive to contamination.
- Single-dose vials are considered to be the safest way to administer medication because they minimize the risk of contamination.
- A multi-dose vial is a vial that contains multiple doses of medication. The vial can be used to administer multiple doses of medication to different patients.
- Multi-dose vials are often used for medications that are less sensitive to contamination, such as antibiotics.
- Multi-dose vials must be handled carefully to prevent contamination.
Joint Commission and UCA guidelines on handling single-dose and multi-dose vials of vaccines guide
The Joint Commission and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) have a vaccine guide on the safe handling of single-dose and multi-dose vials. These guidelines include:
- Single-dose vials must be used one time only. Any unused medication must be discarded.
- Multi-dose vials must be labeled with the date and time that they were first opened.
- Multi-dose vials must be stored in a cool, dry place.
- Multi-dose vials must be visually inspected before each use for any signs of contamination.
- If a multi-dose vial becomes contaminated, it must be discarded.
By following these guidelines, you can help to ensure the safe handling of single-dose and multi-dose vials.
Some additional things to keep in mind when handling single-dose and multi-dose vials:
- Always wash your hands before and after handling any medication.
- Use an aseptic technique when handling single-dose vials.
- Do not reuse needles or syringes.
- Dispose of needles and syringes in a sharps container.
By following these simple guidelines, you can help prevent the spread of infection and ensure the safe handling of vaccines and other medications.
Frequently Asked Questions
How many doses of a vaccine do I need?
The number of doses of a vaccine you need depends on the vaccine. Some vaccines only need one dose, while others need multiple doses. The number of doses is also based on your age and health status.
What are the side effects of vaccines?
The most common side effects of vaccines are mild and go away on their own within a few days. These side effects may include:
- Pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site
- Serious side effects from vaccines are very rare.
Are vaccines safe?
Vaccines are very safe. The benefits of vaccines far outweigh the risks. Vaccines have been proven to be effective at preventing diseases, and they are an important part of public health.
How long does the protection from a vaccine last?
The protection from a vaccine can last for different lengths of time, depending on the vaccine. Some vaccines, such as the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, provide lifelong protection. Other vaccines, such as the influenza vaccine, need to be given every year.
Can I get a vaccine if I am allergic to something?
Yes, you can still get a vaccine if you are allergic to something. However, you should talk to your doctor before getting the vaccine. Your doctor can help you determine if the vaccine is safe for you.
What are the risks of not getting vaccinated?
The risks of not getting vaccinated include:
- Getting sick
- Developing serious complications from the disease
- Spreading the disease to others